Likely Effective for:
Osteoarthritis: Most research on glucosamine sulfate has measured its effectiveness on osteoarthritis of the knee. However, there is some evidence that it might also help osteoarthritis of the hip or spine.
Some research suggests that glucosamine reduces pain of osteoarthritis in the knee about as well as the over-the-counter pain reliever acetaminophen (Tylenol). It also seems to reduce pain about as much as the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil) and piroxicam (Feldene). However, there is a difference between glucosamine sulfate and these drugs in the time it takes to reduce pain. The NSAIDs, such as Motrin, Advil, and Feldene, relieve symptoms and reduce pain usually within about 2 weeks, but glucosamine sulfate takes about 4-8 weeks.
Glucosamine sulfate does not seem to decrease pain in everyone who takes it. Some people get no benefit. Some research shows that glucosamine sulfate might not work very well for people with more severe, long-standing osteoarthritis, or for people who are older or heavier.
In addition to relieving pain and improving joint function, glucosamine sulfate might also slow the breakdown of joints in people with osteoarthritis who take it long-term. Some researchers hope that glucosamine sulfate might keep osteoarthritis from getting worse as quickly as it otherwise might. There is some evidence that people who take glucosamine sulfate might be less likely to need total knee replacement surgery.
Insufficient Evidence for:
Joint pain caused by drugs that lower estrogen levels. Early research suggests that taking a combination of glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfate in two or three divided doses daily for 24 weeks reduces pain in women taking drugs that lower estrogen levels for early stage breast cancer.
Painful bladder syndrome (Interstitial cystitis). Early research suggests that taking a specific product containing glucosamine sulfate, sodium hyaluronate, chondroitin sulfate, quercetin, and rutin (CystoProtek, Tischon Corporation, Westbury, NY) four times daily for 12 months reduces symptoms of painful bladder syndrome.
Joint pain. Research shows that taking a specific product containing glucosamine sulfate, methylsufonlylmethane, white willow bark extract, ginger root concentrate, Indian frankincense extract, turmeric root extract, cayenne, and hyaluronic acid (Instaflex Joint Support, Direct Digital, Charlotte, NC) in three divided doses daily for 8 weeks reduces
joint pain. But this product doesn’t seem to help joint stiffness or function.
Knee pain. Some research shows that taking a specific product containing glucosamine sulfate, methylsufonlylmethane, white willow bark extract, ginger root concentrate, Indian frankincense extract, turmeric root extract, cayenne, and hyaluronic acid (Instaflex Joint Support, Direct Digital, Charlotte, NC) in three divided doses daily for 8 weeks reduces joint pain in people with knee pain. But this product doesn’t seem to help joint stiffness or function. Other early research shows that taking 1500 mg of glucosamine sulfate daily for 28 days does not reduce knee pain in athletes following a knee injury. However, it does seem to improve knee movement.
Multiple sclerosis. Early research shows that taking 1000 mg of glucosamine sulfate by mouth daily for 6 months might reduce the relapse of multiple sclerosis.
Jaw pain (Temporomandibular disorder). Some research shows that taking glucosamine sulfate works about as well as the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil, etc.) for relieving jaw pain. In some people, pain relief appears to continue for up to 90 days after glucosamine sulfate is discontinued. However, research suggests that when 1200 mg of glucosamine sulfate is taken by mouth daily for 6 months, jaw pain and the ability to open the jaw are not improved.
More evidence is needed to rate glucosamine sulfate for these uses: Glaucoma. Weight loss. Other conditions.
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