VEILIGHEID & BIJWERKINGEN

Hoogstwaarschijnlijk veilig 

  • Oraal (via mond en slokdarm)
    Glucosaminesulfaat is veilig gebruikt in verschillende klinische onderzoeken van gedurende  4 weken tot 3 jaar.[01]McAlindon TE, LaValley MP, Gulin JP, Felson DT. Glucosamine and chondroitin for treatment of osteoarthritis: a systematic quality assessment and meta-analysis. JAMA 2000;283:1469-75. View abstract. [06]Drovanti A, Bignamini AA, Rovati AL. Therapeutic activity of oral glucosamine sulfate in osteoarthrosis: a placebo-controlled double-blind investigation. Clin Ther 1980;3:260-72. View abstract. [02]Lopes Vaz A. Double-blind, clinical evaluation of the relative efficacy of ibuprofen and glucosamine sulphate in the management of osteoarthrosis of the knee in out-patients. Curr Med Res Opin 1982;8:145-9. View abstract. [03]Pujalte JM, Llavore EP, Ylescupidez FR. Double-blind clinical evaluation of oral glucosamine sulphate in the basic treatment of osteoarthrosis. Curr Med Res Opin 1980;7:110-4. View abstract. [04]Qiu GX, Gao SN, Giacovelli G, et al. Efficacy and safety of glucosamine sulfate versus ibuprofen in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Arzneimittelforschung 1998;48:469-74. View abstract. [05]Forster K, Schmid K, Rovati L, et al. Longer-term treatment of mild-to-moderate osteoarthritis of the knee with glucosamine sulfate- a randomized controlled, double-blind clinical study. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1996;50:542. [07]Reginster JY, Deroisy R, Rovati LC, et al. Long-term effects of glucosamine sulfate on osteoarthritis progression: a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2001;357:251-6. View abstract. [08]Pavelka K, Gatterova J, Olejarova M, et al. Glucosamine sulfate use and delay of progression of knee osteoarthritis: A 3-year, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Arch Intern Med 2002;162:2113-23. View abstract. [09]Towheed TE. Current status of glucosamine therapy in osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2003;49:601-4. View abstract. [10]Bruyere O, Pavelka K, Rovati LC, et al. Glucosamine sulfate reduces osteoarthritis progression in postmenopausal women with knee osteoarthritis: evidence from two 3-year studies. Menopause 2004;11:138-43. View abstract. [11]Towheed TE, Anastassiades TP, Shea B, et al. Glucosamine therapy for treating osteoarthritis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2001;1:CD002946.View abstract. [12]Towheed TE, Maxwell L, Anastassiades TP, et al. Glucosamine therapy for treating osteoarthritis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005;(2):CD002946. View abstract. [13]Rozendaal RM, Koes BW, van Osch GJVM, et al. Effect of glucosamine sulfate on hip osteoarthritis: A randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 2008;148:268-77. View abstract. [14]Zhu, Y., Zou, J., Xiao, D., Fan, H., Yu, C., Zhang, J., Yang, J., and Guo, D. Bioequivalence of two formulations of glucosamine sulfate 500-mg capsules in healthy male Chinese volunteers: an open-label, randomized-sequence, single-dose, fasting, two-way crossover study. Clin Ther 2009;31(7):1551-1558. View abstract. [15]Fransen M, Agaliotis M, Nairn L, Votrubec M, Bridgett L, Su S, Jan S, March L,Edmonds J, Norton R, Woodward M, Day R; LEGS study collaborative group. Glucosamine and chondroitin for knee osteoarthritis: a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled clinical trial evaluating single and combination regimens. Ann Rheum Dis 2015;74(5):851-8. View abstract. [16]Wangroongsub Y, Tanavalee A, Wilairatana V, Ngarmukos S. Comparable clinical outcomes between glucosamine sulfate-potassium chloride and glucosamine sulfate sodium chloride in patients with mild and moderate knee osteoarthritis: a randomized, double-blind study. J Med Assoc Thai 2010;93(7):805-11. View abstract. [17]Madhu K, Chanda K, Saji MJ. Safety and efficacy of Curcuma longa extract in the treatment of painful knee osteoarthritis: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Inflammopharmacology 2013;21(2):129-36. View abstract.

Mogelijk veilig

  • Intramusculair (injectie in een spier)
    Tweemaal per week gedurende tot 6 weken één intramusculaire glucosamine injectie lijkt een goed verdraagzame behandeling te zijn. [18]Reichelt A. Efficacy and safety of intramuscular glucosamine sulfate in osteoarthritis of the knee. A randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Arzneimittelforschung 1994;44:75-80. View abstract.
  • Dermaal (op de huid)
    Glucosaminesulfaat in combinatie met chondroitinesulfaat, haaienkraakbeen en kamfer, over een periode van acht weken lijkt veilig te zijn wanneer het lokaal en op noodzakelijke basis wordt toegepast. [19]Cohen M, Wolfe R, Mai T, Lewis D. A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trial of a topical cream containing glucosamine sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, and camphor for osteoarthritis of the knee. J Rheumatol 2003;30:523-8.. View abstract.

Bijwerkingen:

Glucosaminesulfaat kan mogelijk lichte bijwerkingen veroorzaken zoals misselijkheid, maagzuur, diarree en obstipatie. Zelden voorkomende bijwerkingen zijn: slaperigheid, allergische reacties van de huid, en hoofdpijn.

Voorzorgsmaatregelen en waarschuwingen

  • Zwangerschap en borstvoeding
    Er is onvoldoende wetenschappelijk onderzoek gedaan naar de effecten van glucosaminesulfaat op ongeboren kinderen en zuigelingen. Totdat er meer onderzoek naar is gedaan, wordt zwangere vrouwen en vrouwen die borstvoeding geven afgeraden om glucosaminesulfaat te gebruiken.
  • Astma
    Mensen met astma doen er goed aan voorzichtig om te gaan met glucosamine producten, aangezien er melding is geweest van het verband tussen een astma-aanval en glucosamine inname, ook al is het niet aangetoond dat glucosamine de aanval veroorzaakte. Totdat er meer onderzoek is gedaan, dienen mensen met astma voorzichtig om te gaan met glucosamine producten. [20]Tallia AF, Cardone DA. Asthma exacerbation associated with glucosamine-chondroitin supplement. J Am Board Fam Pract 2002;15:481-4.. View abstract.
  • Diabetes
    Sommige vooronderzoeken en ‘case reports’ hebben hun bezorgdheid geuit dat bij gebruik van glucosaminesulfaat mogelijk de insulineresistentie toeneemt of de productie van insuline verlaagt, wat resulteert in een verhoogde bloedsuikerspiegel. [21]Adams ME. Hype about glucosamine. Lancet 1999;354:353-4. View abstract. [22]Balkan B, Dunning BE. Glucosamine inhibits glucokinase in vitro and produces a glucose-specific impairment of in vivo insulin secretion in rats. Diabetes 1994;43:1173-9. View abstract. [23]Giaccari A, Morviducci L, Zorretta D, et al. In vivo effects of glucosamine on insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in the rat: possible relevance to the maladaptive responses to chronic hyperglycaemia. Diabetologia 1995;38:518-24. View abstract. [24]Holmang A, Nilsson C, Niklasson M, et al. Induction of insulin resistance by glucosamine reduces blood flow but not interstitial levels of either glucose or insulin. Diabetes 1999;48:106-11. View abstract. [25]Shankar RR, Zhu JS, Baron AD. Glucosamine infusion in rats mimics the beta-cell dysfunction of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Metabolism 1998;47:573-7. View abstract. [26]Almada A, Harvey P, Platt K. Effects of chronic oral glucosamine sulfate on fasting insulin resistance index (FIRI) in non-diabetic individuals. FASEB J 2000;14:A750. [27]Monauni T, Zenti MG, Cretti A, et al. Effects of glucosamine infusion on insulin secretion and insulin action in humans. Diabetes 2000;49:926-35.View abstract. [28]Pham T, Cornea A, Blick KE, et al. Oral glucosamine in doses used to treat osteoarthritis worsens insulin resistance. Am J Med Sci 2007;333:333-9. View abstract. Echter, klinisch studies tonen aan dat verschillende vormen van glucosamine geen negatief effect hebben op de bloedglucose of hemoglobine A1C (HbA1C) bij gezonde, zwaarlijvige, mensen met diabetes type 2 of bij een verminderde glucosetolerantie. [29]Reginster JY, Deroisy R, Rovati LC, et al. Long-term effects of glucosamine sulfate on osteoarthritis progression: a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2001;357:251-6. View abstract. [30]Does glucosamine increase serum lipid levels and blood pressure? Pharmacist’s Letter/Prescriber’s Letter 2001;17(11):171115. [31]Pouwels MJ, Jacobs JR, Span PN, et al. Short-term glucosamine infusion does not affect insulin sensitivity in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001;86:2099-103. View abstract. [32]Pavelka K, Gatterova J, Olejarova M, et al. Glucosamine sulfate use and delay of progression of knee osteoarthritis: A 3-year, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Arch Intern Med 2002;162:2113-23. View abstract. [33]Scroggie DA, Albright A, Harris MD. The effect of glucosamine-chondroitin supplementation on glycosylated hemoglobin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomized clinical trial. Arch Intern Med 2003;163:1587-90. View abstract. [34]Yu JG, Boies SM, Olefsky JM. The effect of oral glucosamine sulfate on insulin sensitivity in human subjects. Diabetes Care 2003;26:1941-2. View abstract. [35]Tannis AJ, Barban J, Conquer JA. Effect of glucosamine supplementation on fasting and non-fasting plasma glucose and serum insulin concentrations in healthy individuals. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2004;12:506-11. View abstract. [36]Stumpf JL, Lin SW. Effect of glucosamine on glucose control. Ann Pharmacother 2006;40:694-8. View abstract. [37]Muniyappa R, Karne RJ, Hall G, et al. Oral glucosamine for 6 weeks at standard doses does not cause or worsen insulin resistance or endothelial dysfunction in lean or obese subjects. Diabetes 2006;55:3142-50. View abstract. [38]Simon RR, Marks V, Leeds AR, Anderson JW. A comprehensive review of oral glucosamine use and effects on glucose metabolism in normal and diabetic individuals. Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2011;27(1):14-27. View abstract.
  • Hoog cholesterol (hypercholesterolemie)
    Er is bezorgdheid dat het gebruik van glucosaminesulfaat kan leiden tot stofwisselingsstoornissen die zouden resulteren in verhoogde cholesterol en triglyceriden waardes. Enkele vooronderzoeken suggereren dat glucosamine mogelijk het insulinegehalte kan verhogen. Hyperinsulinemia (verhoogd insulinegehalte) wordt geassocieerd met hyperlipidemia (verhoogd vetgehalte in het bloed).[39]Almada A, Harvey P, Platt K. Effects of chronic oral glucosamine sulfate on fasting insulin resistance index (FIRI) in non-diabetic individuals. FASEB J 2000;14:A750. [40]Does glucosamine increase serum lipid levels and blood pressure? Pharmacist’s Letter/Prescriber’s Letter 2001;17(11):171115. Diermodel onderzoek heeft ook laten zien dat glucosamine mogelijk hyperlipidemie kan versterken.[41]Tannock LR, Kirk EA, King VL, et al. Glucosamine supplementation accelerates early but not late atherosclerosis in LDL receptor-deficient mice. J Nutr 2006;136:2856-61. View abstract. Maar bij menselijk onderzoek is dit effect niet aangetoond. Glucosamine lijkt geen invloed te hebben op cholesterol en triglyceriden waardes.[42]Reginster JY, Deroisy R, Rovati LC, et al. Long-term effects of glucosamine sulfate on osteoarthritis progression: a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2001;357:251-6. View abstract.[43]Pavelka K, Gatterova J, Olejarova M, et al. Glucosamine sulfate use and delay of progression of knee osteoarthritis: A 3-year, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Arch Intern Med 2002;162:2113-23. View abstract. [44]Ostergaard, K., Hviid, T., and Hyllested-Winge, J. L. [The effect of glucosamine sulphate on the blood levels of cholesterol or triglycerides–a clinical study]. Ugeskr Laeger 2007;169(5):407-410. View abstract.
  • Hoge bloeddruk (hypertension)
    Er is bezorgdheid dat het gebruik van glucosaminesulfaat kan leiden tot stofwisselingsstoornissen die zouden resulteren in een verhoogde bloeddruk. Enkele vooronderzoeken suggereren dat glucosamine mogelijk het insulinegehalte kan verhogen. Hyperinsulinemia (verhoogd insulinegehalte) wordt geassocieerd met een verhoogde bloeddruk.[45]Almada A, Harvey P, Platt K. Effects of chronic oral glucosamine sulfate on fasting insulin resistance index (FIRI) in non-diabetic individuals. FASEB J 2000;14:A750. [46]Does glucosamine increase serum lipid levels and blood pressure? Pharmacist’s Letter/Prescriber’s Letter 2001;17(11):171115. Maar bij menselijk onderzoek is dit effect niet aangetoond. Inname van glucosaminesulfaat lijkt geen invloed te hebben op de bloeddruk.[47]Reginster JY, Deroisy R, Rovati LC, et al. Long-term effects of glucosamine sulfate on osteoarthritis progression: a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2001;357:251-6. View abstract. [48]Pavelka K, Gatterova J, Olejarova M, et al. Glucosamine sulfate use and delay of progression of knee osteoarthritis: A 3-year, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Arch Intern Med 2002;162:2113-23. View abstract
  • Schaal- en schepdieren allergie
    Er is bezorgdheid dat glucosamine producten allergische reacties kunnen veroorzaken bij mensen die gevoelig zijn schaal- en schelpdieren. Glucosamine kan gemaakt worden van de schaal van garnalen, kreeft of krab. Echter, de allergische reactie wordt  veroorzaakt lgE antilichamen tegen antigenen in het het vlees van schaal- en schelpdieren, niet door de antigenen in de schaal. Er is enkel bewijs dat het veilig is voor mensen met een schaal- en scheldierallergie om glucosamine producten te gebruiken.[49]Gray HC, Hutcheson PS, Slavin RG. Is glucosamine safe in patients with seafood allergy (letter)? J Allergy Clin Immunol 2004;114:459-60. View abstract. [50]Villacis, J., Rice, T. R., Bucci, L. R., El-Dahr, J. M., Wild, L., Demerell, D., Soteres, D., and Lehrer, S. B. Do shrimp-allergic individuals tolerate shrimp-derived glucosamine? Clin Exp Allergy 2006;36(11):1457-1461. View abstract.
  • Operaties
    Glucosaminesulfaat kan mogelijk de bloedsuikerspiegel beïnvloeden en kan in theorie mogelijk het monitoren van bloedsuiker beïnvloeden tijdens en na een operatie. Daarom wordt er geadviseerd om glucosamine niet te gebruiken minstens twee weken voor een geplande operatie.
Informatie uit deze bron is gebaseerd op gegevens uit kwantitatief en-of kwalitatief wetenschappelijk onderzoek en zonder invloed van een belangengroep, professionele organisatie of fabrikant tot stand gekomen.

Referenties   [ + ]

01. McAlindon TE, LaValley MP, Gulin JP, Felson DT. Glucosamine and chondroitin for treatment of osteoarthritis: a systematic quality assessment and meta-analysis. JAMA 2000;283:1469-75. View abstract.
02. Lopes Vaz A. Double-blind, clinical evaluation of the relative efficacy of ibuprofen and glucosamine sulphate in the management of osteoarthrosis of the knee in out-patients. Curr Med Res Opin 1982;8:145-9. View abstract.
03. Pujalte JM, Llavore EP, Ylescupidez FR. Double-blind clinical evaluation of oral glucosamine sulphate in the basic treatment of osteoarthrosis. Curr Med Res Opin 1980;7:110-4. View abstract.
04. Qiu GX, Gao SN, Giacovelli G, et al. Efficacy and safety of glucosamine sulfate versus ibuprofen in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Arzneimittelforschung 1998;48:469-74. View abstract.
05. Forster K, Schmid K, Rovati L, et al. Longer-term treatment of mild-to-moderate osteoarthritis of the knee with glucosamine sulfate- a randomized controlled, double-blind clinical study. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1996;50:542.
06. Drovanti A, Bignamini AA, Rovati AL. Therapeutic activity of oral glucosamine sulfate in osteoarthrosis: a placebo-controlled double-blind investigation. Clin Ther 1980;3:260-72. View abstract.
07. Reginster JY, Deroisy R, Rovati LC, et al. Long-term effects of glucosamine sulfate on osteoarthritis progression: a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2001;357:251-6. View abstract.
08. Pavelka K, Gatterova J, Olejarova M, et al. Glucosamine sulfate use and delay of progression of knee osteoarthritis: A 3-year, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Arch Intern Med 2002;162:2113-23. View abstract.
09. Towheed TE. Current status of glucosamine therapy in osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2003;49:601-4. View abstract.
10. Bruyere O, Pavelka K, Rovati LC, et al. Glucosamine sulfate reduces osteoarthritis progression in postmenopausal women with knee osteoarthritis: evidence from two 3-year studies. Menopause 2004;11:138-43. View abstract.
11. Towheed TE, Anastassiades TP, Shea B, et al. Glucosamine therapy for treating osteoarthritis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2001;1:CD002946.View abstract.
12. Towheed TE, Maxwell L, Anastassiades TP, et al. Glucosamine therapy for treating osteoarthritis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005;(2):CD002946. View abstract.
13. Rozendaal RM, Koes BW, van Osch GJVM, et al. Effect of glucosamine sulfate on hip osteoarthritis: A randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 2008;148:268-77. View abstract.
14. Zhu, Y., Zou, J., Xiao, D., Fan, H., Yu, C., Zhang, J., Yang, J., and Guo, D. Bioequivalence of two formulations of glucosamine sulfate 500-mg capsules in healthy male Chinese volunteers: an open-label, randomized-sequence, single-dose, fasting, two-way crossover study. Clin Ther 2009;31(7):1551-1558. View abstract.
15. Fransen M, Agaliotis M, Nairn L, Votrubec M, Bridgett L, Su S, Jan S, March L,Edmonds J, Norton R, Woodward M, Day R; LEGS study collaborative group. Glucosamine and chondroitin for knee osteoarthritis: a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled clinical trial evaluating single and combination regimens. Ann Rheum Dis 2015;74(5):851-8. View abstract.
16. Wangroongsub Y, Tanavalee A, Wilairatana V, Ngarmukos S. Comparable clinical outcomes between glucosamine sulfate-potassium chloride and glucosamine sulfate sodium chloride in patients with mild and moderate knee osteoarthritis: a randomized, double-blind study. J Med Assoc Thai 2010;93(7):805-11. View abstract.
17. Madhu K, Chanda K, Saji MJ. Safety and efficacy of Curcuma longa extract in the treatment of painful knee osteoarthritis: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Inflammopharmacology 2013;21(2):129-36. View abstract.
18. Reichelt A. Efficacy and safety of intramuscular glucosamine sulfate in osteoarthritis of the knee. A randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Arzneimittelforschung 1994;44:75-80. View abstract.
19. Cohen M, Wolfe R, Mai T, Lewis D. A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trial of a topical cream containing glucosamine sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, and camphor for osteoarthritis of the knee. J Rheumatol 2003;30:523-8.. View abstract.
20. Tallia AF, Cardone DA. Asthma exacerbation associated with glucosamine-chondroitin supplement. J Am Board Fam Pract 2002;15:481-4.. View abstract.
21. Adams ME. Hype about glucosamine. Lancet 1999;354:353-4. View abstract.
22. Balkan B, Dunning BE. Glucosamine inhibits glucokinase in vitro and produces a glucose-specific impairment of in vivo insulin secretion in rats. Diabetes 1994;43:1173-9. View abstract.
23. Giaccari A, Morviducci L, Zorretta D, et al. In vivo effects of glucosamine on insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in the rat: possible relevance to the maladaptive responses to chronic hyperglycaemia. Diabetologia 1995;38:518-24. View abstract.
24. Holmang A, Nilsson C, Niklasson M, et al. Induction of insulin resistance by glucosamine reduces blood flow but not interstitial levels of either glucose or insulin. Diabetes 1999;48:106-11. View abstract.
25. Shankar RR, Zhu JS, Baron AD. Glucosamine infusion in rats mimics the beta-cell dysfunction of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Metabolism 1998;47:573-7. View abstract.
26. Almada A, Harvey P, Platt K. Effects of chronic oral glucosamine sulfate on fasting insulin resistance index (FIRI) in non-diabetic individuals. FASEB J 2000;14:A750.
27. Monauni T, Zenti MG, Cretti A, et al. Effects of glucosamine infusion on insulin secretion and insulin action in humans. Diabetes 2000;49:926-35.View abstract.
28. Pham T, Cornea A, Blick KE, et al. Oral glucosamine in doses used to treat osteoarthritis worsens insulin resistance. Am J Med Sci 2007;333:333-9. View abstract.
29. Reginster JY, Deroisy R, Rovati LC, et al. Long-term effects of glucosamine sulfate on osteoarthritis progression: a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2001;357:251-6. View abstract.
30. Does glucosamine increase serum lipid levels and blood pressure? Pharmacist’s Letter/Prescriber’s Letter 2001;17(11):171115.
31. Pouwels MJ, Jacobs JR, Span PN, et al. Short-term glucosamine infusion does not affect insulin sensitivity in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001;86:2099-103. View abstract.
32. Pavelka K, Gatterova J, Olejarova M, et al. Glucosamine sulfate use and delay of progression of knee osteoarthritis: A 3-year, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Arch Intern Med 2002;162:2113-23. View abstract.
33. Scroggie DA, Albright A, Harris MD. The effect of glucosamine-chondroitin supplementation on glycosylated hemoglobin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomized clinical trial. Arch Intern Med 2003;163:1587-90. View abstract.
34. Yu JG, Boies SM, Olefsky JM. The effect of oral glucosamine sulfate on insulin sensitivity in human subjects. Diabetes Care 2003;26:1941-2. View abstract.
35. Tannis AJ, Barban J, Conquer JA. Effect of glucosamine supplementation on fasting and non-fasting plasma glucose and serum insulin concentrations in healthy individuals. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2004;12:506-11. View abstract.
36. Stumpf JL, Lin SW. Effect of glucosamine on glucose control. Ann Pharmacother 2006;40:694-8. View abstract.
37. Muniyappa R, Karne RJ, Hall G, et al. Oral glucosamine for 6 weeks at standard doses does not cause or worsen insulin resistance or endothelial dysfunction in lean or obese subjects. Diabetes 2006;55:3142-50. View abstract.
38. Simon RR, Marks V, Leeds AR, Anderson JW. A comprehensive review of oral glucosamine use and effects on glucose metabolism in normal and diabetic individuals. Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2011;27(1):14-27. View abstract.
39. Almada A, Harvey P, Platt K. Effects of chronic oral glucosamine sulfate on fasting insulin resistance index (FIRI) in non-diabetic individuals. FASEB J 2000;14:A750.
40. Does glucosamine increase serum lipid levels and blood pressure? Pharmacist’s Letter/Prescriber’s Letter 2001;17(11):171115.
41. Tannock LR, Kirk EA, King VL, et al. Glucosamine supplementation accelerates early but not late atherosclerosis in LDL receptor-deficient mice. J Nutr 2006;136:2856-61. View abstract.
42. Reginster JY, Deroisy R, Rovati LC, et al. Long-term effects of glucosamine sulfate on osteoarthritis progression: a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2001;357:251-6. View abstract.
43. Pavelka K, Gatterova J, Olejarova M, et al. Glucosamine sulfate use and delay of progression of knee osteoarthritis: A 3-year, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Arch Intern Med 2002;162:2113-23. View abstract.
44. Ostergaard, K., Hviid, T., and Hyllested-Winge, J. L. [The effect of glucosamine sulphate on the blood levels of cholesterol or triglycerides–a clinical study]. Ugeskr Laeger 2007;169(5):407-410. View abstract.
45. Almada A, Harvey P, Platt K. Effects of chronic oral glucosamine sulfate on fasting insulin resistance index (FIRI) in non-diabetic individuals. FASEB J 2000;14:A750.
46. Does glucosamine increase serum lipid levels and blood pressure? Pharmacist’s Letter/Prescriber’s Letter 2001;17(11):171115.
47. Reginster JY, Deroisy R, Rovati LC, et al. Long-term effects of glucosamine sulfate on osteoarthritis progression: a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2001;357:251-6. View abstract.
48. Pavelka K, Gatterova J, Olejarova M, et al. Glucosamine sulfate use and delay of progression of knee osteoarthritis: A 3-year, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Arch Intern Med 2002;162:2113-23. View abstract
49. Gray HC, Hutcheson PS, Slavin RG. Is glucosamine safe in patients with seafood allergy (letter)? J Allergy Clin Immunol 2004;114:459-60. View abstract.
50. Villacis, J., Rice, T. R., Bucci, L. R., El-Dahr, J. M., Wild, L., Demerell, D., Soteres, D., and Lehrer, S. B. Do shrimp-allergic individuals tolerate shrimp-derived glucosamine? Clin Exp Allergy 2006;36(11):1457-1461. View abstract.